The history of the Vienna Metro (U-Bahn in German) has its own rich narrative and is closely connected with the operation of the Vienna trams and the Vienna city railway (The Stadtbahn in German).

The first section of the Vienna city railway opened on 11th May 1898 and was serviced by steam locomotives. Electrification of the railway was carried out in 1925, and after almost a half century, the Vienna Stadtbahn gave birth to the most popular modern public transport in the Austrian capital – the Vienna Metro.

The fact is, the metro in Vienna was created on the basis of the already operating Vienna city railway, the lines of which were modernised accordingly for this purpose.

Railroad sections built between 1898-1901 have been preserved and are now used for the metro.

The Moscow Metro is one of the most grandiose constructions of the Soviet period. The Metro represents the pride of the Soviet people and is a symbol of the unity of the creative thought and heroic labour of millions. The whole country joined in the construction of the Moscow Metro and even now it remains the world’s best metro systems for its design qualities, architectural features and decor. This is a truly outstanding contribution from the people to the treasury of Soviet and world culture.

This explains why several Moscow Metro stations are included on the UNESCO World Heritage List. On the evening of 15th October 1934, the first Moscow Metro train departed for a trial run. This train composed of two A-type carriages (the first domestically produced metro train) travelled from Komsomolskaya station to Sokolniki station.

The idea of building a metro in Paris was born in 1855, and a year later the Mayor’s office received the first plans for consideration. Over subsequent years, a number of other projects were submitted for consideration.

By 1896, the streets of Paris were overrun with traffic; in addition, the World Exhibition of 1900 was approaching. Therefore, on 7th July 1897, after a long discussion, the Municipal Council adopted the 1896 Paris Metro revised project. On 30th March 1898, the legal contract for the construction of six metro lines was issued; the construction of the first line starting in November. It was necessary for the project to be finished in time for the opening of the World Exhibition on 14th April 1900. However, owing to the large volume and complexity of the work, the first line was only commissioned after a three-month delay.

The history of the Prague Metro is intertwined with the potential construction of the underground tramway. Preparation for the construction of the first underground tramway of this type began on Opletalova Street on 7th January 1966. However, after numerous discussions, based on the Decree of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic dated 9th August 1967, it was decided to construct the Prague Metro instead of the first underground tram tunnel. Work began on the first metro tunnel from Štětkova Street to Hrdinů Square in the Pankrác district on 20th January 1969.

The Helsinki Metro is currently the northernmost metro system in the world and the only one in Finland. The idea of building the metro in Helsinki was approved by the Planning and Construction Committee in 1958. The first plans for the project were completed in March 1963; they proposed 108 stations. After lengthy discussions, on 7th May 1969, the Municipal Council decided to build only one line: the Kamppi – Itäkeskus.

Construction of the first metro line in Helsinki started in September 1969. The test track section from the depot in the Roihupelto area to Herttoniemi was built in 1971. However, during the testing stage, several problems were detected, including defects in the rolling stock. By 1977, all capital work was completed, but commissioning work took approximately five years longer.